In area, the Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. Its total area is about 17 million square kilometres. It occupies most of Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. Russia stretches from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the East and from the Arctic Ocean in the North to the Black Sea and the Caucasus, the Altai, and the Sayan mountains, and the Amur and the Ussuri rivers in the South. It is bordered by Norway and Finland in the north-west, Estonia, Latvia, Belarus and the Ukraine in the West, Georgia and Azerbaijan in the south-west, and Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China along the southern border.
The land of Russia varies from thick forests to barren deserts, from high peaked mountains to deep valleys. Russian Federation is located on two plains, the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Lowland. The longest mountain chains are the Urals, separating Europe from Asia, the Caucasus, the Altai. Russia's most important rivers are the Volga, Europe's biggest river, flowing into the Caspian Sea, the main Siberian rivers (the Ob, the Yenisei and the Lena), and the Amur m the Far East, flowing into the Pacific Ocean. The total number of rivers in Russia is over two million. The world's deepest lake - Lake Baikal, with the depth of 1,600 metres, is situated in Russia, too.
The climate in Russia varies from arctic in the North to continental in the central part of the country and subtropical in the South.
The current population of Russia is 143 million people; 82% of the population are Russians.
Russia is a highly-industrialized-agrarian republic. Its vast mineral resources include oil and natural gas, coal, iron, zinc, lead, nickel, aluminum, gold and other non-ferrous metals. Russia has the world's largest oil and natural gas resources. Three-quarters of the republic's mineral wealth is concentrated in Siberia and the Far East.
Approximately 10 million people are engaged in agriculture and they produce half of the region's grain, meat, milk and other dairy products. The largest granaries are located in the North Caucasus and the Volga and the Amur regions.
The capital of the Russian Federation is Moscow, with the population of about 10 million people.
Russia is a constitutional republic with President as Head of State. The legislative power is vested in the Federal Assembly, consisting of the Council of Federation and the State Duma.